A comparative study on the clays incorporated with acrylamide-based hydrogels

  • Farzaneh Sabbagh Alzahra University
Keywords: Composite Hydrogel, Clay-polymer Nanocomposite, Acrylamide, Swelling Behavior, Drug Delivery Carriers, Montmorillonite


In the current study to increase the release ability of acrylamide-based hydrogels, modified acrylamide-based hydrogel nanocomposites were synthesized and Montmorillonite, Kaolinite, and Illite were added to the matrix. The characterization of the clays was carried out using EDX and XRD, whereas the characterization of the clay-hydrogels was carried out with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), swelling ratio, and rheology measurements. EDX of clays showed that the highest amount of Al (17.18 0.12%) is for Kaolinite and the highest amount of Si (20.94 0.85%) and Fe (8.53 %) belongs to Illite. The highest amount of C (6.97 1.54%) is for Montmorillonite. The swelling of Montmorillonite/Aam hydrogels including was found to be higher than other types of hydrogels used in this study. The shifting of the bonds in FTIR and FESEM images of composites showed that the clays are well-incorporated to the polymer and the shape of the composites in the FESEM images indicates the effect of clays on the structure of polymers. The highest swelling ratio was attributed to Montmorillonite/Aam composite. The frequency sweep test showed that the G’ and G” value of the Illite/Aam G’ (1260 36.5 Pa) and (198.5 6.6 Pa) was higher than the other mixtures.


Download data is not yet available.


1. Zhao, Z., et al., Bioinspired nanocomposite hydrogels with highly ordered structures. Advanced Materials, 2017. 29(45): p. 1703045.
2. Le, X., et al., Recent progress in biomimetic anisotropic hydrogel actuators. Advanced science, 2019. 6(5): p. 1801584.
3. Ludueña, L., J. Morán, and V. Alvarez, Biodegradable polymer/clay nanocomposites, in Eco-friendly Polymer Nanocomposites. 2015, Springer. p. 109-135.
4. Nesrinne, S. and A. Djamel, Synthesis, characterization and rheological behavior of pH sensitive poly (acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) hydrogels. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 2017. 10(4): p. 539-547.
5. Onnainty, R., et al., Targeted chitosan-based bionanocomposites for controlled oral mucosal delivery of chlorhexidine. International journal of pharmaceutics, 2016. 509(1-2): p. 408-418.
6. Vdović, N., et al., The surface properties of clay minerals modified by intensive dry milling—revisited. Applied Clay Science, 2010. 48(4): p. 575-580.
7. Ozay, O., Synthesis and swelling behavior of novel pH responsive hydrogels for environmental applications. Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, 2014. 53(2): p. 130-140.
8. Shi, Z., et al., Electroconductive natural polymer-based hydrogels. Biomaterials, 2016. 111: p. 40-54.
9. Gong, X., et al., Amino graphene oxide/dopamine modified aramid fibers: Preparation, epoxy nanocomposites and property analysis. Polymer, 2019. 168: p. 131-137.
10. Sabbagh, F. and I.I. Muhamad, Acrylamide-based hydrogel drug delivery systems: release of acyclovir from MgO nanocomposite hydrogel. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 2017. 72: p. 182-193.
11. Jafarbeglou, M., et al., Clay nanocomposites as engineered drug delivery systems. RSC advances, 2016. 6(55): p. 50002-50016.
12. Gao, G., et al., Self-healable, tough, and ultrastretchable nanocomposite hydrogels based on reversible polyacrylamide/montmorillonite adsorption. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2015. 7(8): p. 5029-5037.
13. Lin, Z., et al., Aggregation mechanism of particles: Effect of Ca2+ and polyacrylamide on coagulation and flocculation of coal slime water containing illite. Minerals, 2017. 7(2): p. 30.
14. Brückner, J., et al., Carbon‐based anodes for lithium sulfur full cells with high cycle stability. Advanced Functional Materials, 2014. 24(9): p. 1284-1289.
15. Dong, X., et al., Natural illite-based ultrafine cobalt oxide with abundant oxygen-vacancies for highly efficient Fenton-like catalysis. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 2020. 261: p. 118214.
16. Yang, H., et al., Kaolinite: A natural and stable catalyst for depolymerization of cellulose to reducing sugars in water. Applied Clay Science, 2020. 188: p. 105512.
17. Foroutan, R., et al., Efficient arsenic (V) removal from contaminated water using natural clay and clay composite adsorbents. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2019. 26(29): p. 29748-29762.
18. Li, P., et al., Improved mechanical and swelling behavior of the composite hydrogels prepared by ionic monomer and acid-activated Laponite. Applied Clay Science, 2009. 46(4): p. 414-417.
19. Sabbagh, F. and I.I. Muhamad, Physical and chemical characterisation of acrylamide-based hydrogels, Aam, Aam/NaCMC and Aam/NaCMC/MgO. Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials, 2017. 27(5): p. 1439-1449.
20. Sabbagh, F., et al., Mechanical Properties and Swelling Behav-ior of Acrylamide Hydrogels using Mont-morillonite and Kaolinite as Clays. Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques, 2019. 7(2): p. 211-219.
21. Sabbagh, F., et al., Investigation of acyclovir-loaded, acrylamide-based hydrogels for potential use as vaginal ring. Materials Today Communications, 2018. 16: p. 274-280.
22. Sachan, A. and D. Penumadu, Identification of microfabric of kaolinite clay mineral using X-ray diffraction technique. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 2007. 25(6): p. 603.
23. Brindley, G., An X-ray method for studying orientation of micaceous minerals in shales, clays, and similar materials. MinM, 1953. 30(220): p. 71-78.
24. Young, R. and A. Hewat, Verification of the triclinic crystal structure of kaolinite. Clays and Clay Minerals, 1988. 36(3): p. 225-232.
25. Kampeerapappun, P., et al., Preparation of cassava starch/montmorillonite composite film. Carbohydrate Polymers, 2007. 67(2): p. 155-163.
26. Sabbagh, F., et al., Green Synthesis of Mg0. 99 Zn0. 01O Nanoparticles for the Fabrication of κ-Carrageenan/NaCMC Hydrogel in order to Deliver Catechin. Polymers, 2020. 12(4): p. 861.
27. Marsh, A., et al., Alkali activation behaviour of un-calcined montmorillonite and illite clay minerals. Applied Clay Science, 2018. 166: p. 250-261.
28. Gailhanou, H., et al., Thermodynamic properties of anhydrous smectite MX-80, illite IMt-2 and mixed-layer illite–smectite ISCz-1 as determined by calorimetric methods. Part I: Heat capacities, heat contents and entropies. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 2007. 71(22): p. 5463-5473.
29. Huggett, J.M., Formation of authigenic illite in palaeocene mudrocks from the central North Sea: A study by high resolution electron microscopy. Clays and clay minerals, 1995. 43(6): p. 682-692.
30. Pallatt, N., J. Wilson, and B. McHardy, The relationship between permeability and the morphology of diagenetic illite in reservoir rocks. Journal of Petroleum Technology, 1984. 36(12): p. 2,225-2,227.
31. Bakar, W.Z.W., et al., An Investigation on the Effect of Solvent and Heat to Clay Minerals in Shaly Sandstone. Indonesian Journal of Chemistry.
32. Jain, R., V. Mahto, and V. Sharma, Evaluation of polyacrylamide-grafted-polyethylene glycol/silica nanocomposite as potential additive in water based drilling mud for reactive shale formation. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 2015. 26: p. 526-537.
33. Feng, Y.-l., L.-j. Yu, and R.-w. Cao, Adsorption of Copper ions by Montmorillonite/Sodium Humate/N-Isopropyl Acrylamide composite. BULGARIAN CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS, 2017. 49(3): p. 685-689.
34. Puchana-Rosero, M., et al., Microwave-assisted activated carbon obtained from the sludge of tannery-treatment effluent plant for removal of leather dyes. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 2016. 504: p. 105-115.
35. Awad, M.E., et al., Kaolinite in pharmaceutics and biomedicine. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 2017. 533(1): p. 34-48.
36. Sánchez, F.G., et al., Self-diffusion of water and its dependence on temperature and ionic strength in highly compacted montmorillonite, illite and kaolinite. Applied Geochemistry, 2008. 23(12): p. 3840-3851.
37. Roghani‐Mamaqani, H., et al., Preparation of nanoclay‐dispersed polystyrene nanofibers via atom transfer radical polymerization and electrospinning. Journal of applied polymer science, 2011. 120(3): p. 1431-1438.
38. Zhu, T.T., et al., Exfoliation of montmorillonite and related properties of clay/polymer nanocomposites. Applied Clay Science, 2019. 169: p. 48-66.
39. Goyanes, A., C. Souto, and R. Martínez-Pacheco, Chitosan–kaolin coprecipitate as disintegrant in microcrystalline cellulose-based pellets elaborated by extrusion–spheronization. Pharmaceutical development and technology, 2013. 18(1): p. 137-145.
40. Kristensen, J., T. Schæfer, and P. Kleinebudde, Development of fast-disintegrating pellets in a rotary processor. Drug development and industrial pharmacy, 2002. 28(10): p. 1201-1212.
41. Devi, K.U., et al., Enhanced morphology and mechanical characteristics of clay/styrene butadiene rubber nanocomposites. Applied clay science, 2015. 114: p. 568-576.
42. Tadros, T.F., Rheology of dispersions: principles and applications. 2011: John Wiley & Sons.
43. Paineau, E., et al., Aqueous suspensions of natural swelling clay minerals. 1. Structure and electrostatic interactions. Langmuir, 2011. 27(9): p. 5562-5573.
44. Tombacz, E. and M. Szekeres, Colloidal behavior of aqueous montmorillonite suspensions: the specific role of pH in the presence of indifferent electrolytes. Applied clay science, 2004. 27(1-2): p. 75-94.
45. Cruz, N. and Y. Peng, Rheology measurements for flotation slurries with high clay contents–a critical review. Minerals Engineering, 2016. 98: p. 137-150.
46. Sabbagh, F., et al., Effect of zinc content on structural, functional, morphological, and thermal properties of kappa-carrageenan/NaCMC nanocomposites, Polymer Testing, 2021.106:922.
How to Cite
Sabbagh F. A comparative study on the clays incorporated with acrylamide-based hydrogels. AANBT [Internet]. 20Dec.2021 [cited 4Oct.2022];2(4):15-3. Available from: https://www.dormaj.org/index.php/AANBT/article/view/428