Comparison of Sperm Indices, Selected Markers of Oxidative Stress and Sex Hormones among Males with Primary and Secondary Infertility in Osogbo, Nigeria

  • Mathias Abiodun Emokpae University of Benin, Benin City
  • Muyiwa Adeleye Moronkeji Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State
Keywords: Male, spermatozoa, oxidative stress, gonadal steroid hormones


This study seeks to determine the frequency and the differences in the more accentuating factors between primary and secondary male infertility.  Four hundred men evaluated for infertility were consecutively recruited for the study. The socio-demographic information was obtained by interviewer-administered questionnaires. After a medical history and physical examination, their semen was evaluated manually according to WHO guidelines. Serum gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), vitamin B12, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and glutathione (GSH) were determined. The results were compared by unpaired Students’ t-test while categorical variables were compared using chi-square. The frequencies of secondary infertility 129(32.3%) was lower (p<0.001) than primary infertility in the study population. The secondary infertile men were older (p<0.001), had lower levels of sperm count (p<0.046), serum vitamin E (p<0.033), and testosterone (p<0.001) than the primary infertile men. Other independent associated variables were socioeconomic status and duration of the marriage. Serum vitamin E levels correlated negatively with sperm count (r= -0.162;p<0.005) while vitamin C correlated negatively with sperm count (r=-0.136;p<0.02) and morphology (r= -0.144; p<0.04).  The mean serum concentrations of vitamin B12, vitamin E, vitamin C, and GSH were not significantly different between primary and secondary infertile males. The more noticeable differences are age, duration of the marriage, levels of vitamin E and testosterone. The levels of vitamin E, testosterone, and sperm count were lower among men with secondary infertility than primary infertility.


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How to Cite
Emokpae, M., & Moronkeji, M. (2022). Comparison of Sperm Indices, Selected Markers of Oxidative Stress and Sex Hormones among Males with Primary and Secondary Infertility in Osogbo, Nigeria. Journal of Infertility and Reproductive Biology, 10(1), 10-14.
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