Journal of Infertility and Reproductive Biology https://www.dormaj.org/index.php/JIRB <p><strong><span lang="EN-GB">Journal of Infertility and Reproductive Biology (JIRB)</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span lang="EN-GB">ISSN:</span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">&nbsp;2310-7588</span></p> <p>Journal of Infertility and Reproductive Biology (JIRB) is a quarterly, peer-reviewed, open access, and free of charge journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of infertility and reproductive sciences. This journal financed by&nbsp;<span class="SpellE">Dorma</span>&nbsp;Trading&nbsp;<span class="SpellE">Est</span>, publisher,&nbsp;United Arab Emirates, Dubai.<strong>&nbsp;</strong>JIRB is an Open Access Journal Database&nbsp;<span class="il">for</span>&nbsp;High visibility and promotion of your articles. JIRB is steered by a distinguished&nbsp;<a href="https://dormaj.com/index.php/JIRB/about/editorialTeam">Board of Editors</a>&nbsp;and is supported by an international reviewer team consisting of prominent individuals representing many well-known universities, colleges, and corporations in Germany, Spain, Korea, India, Bangladesh, and many more.<strong>&nbsp;</strong>To maintain a high-quality journal, manuscripts that appear in the JIRB Articles section have been subjected to a rigorous review process. This includes blind reviews by three or more members of the international editorial review team, followed by a detailed review by the JIRB editors. The Journal welcomes original research contributions (previously unpublished) from all established areas of infertility and reproductive sciences.&nbsp;</p> Dorma Journals en-US Journal of Infertility and Reproductive Biology 2310-7588 Attenuating effect of polyalthia longifolia on cadmium sulfate- induced testicular toxicity https://www.dormaj.org/index.php/JIRB/article/view/254 <p><em>Polyalthia longifolia</em> extract has numerous beneficial effects on human health. They have been reported to have antiviral, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour and antioxidant activities. Cadmium is used in the production of nickel cadmium batteries, pigments ceramics, plastic stabilizers, and fertilizers. Cigarette smoke is one of the most important sources of cadmium exposure in the general non-occupationally exposed population. In nonsmokers, the main source of cadmium is food, particularly cereals such as rice and wheat, green leafy vegetables, potato, and offal products such as liver and kidney<strong>. </strong>Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Group A were orally treated with distilled water for twenty eight days, Group B were intraperitoneal treated with cadmium sulfate for three days and sacrificed twenty four hours later, Group C received oral administration of Polyalthia longifolia for twenty eight days and Group D received cadmium sulfate intraperitoneally for three days and post treated orally with <em>Polyalthia longifolia</em> for twenty five days. On the 29<sup>th</sup> day the animals were sacrificed through cervical dislocation, the right testis was excised and processed histologically, while the left testis was processed for semen analysis. The histological observation showed that <em>Polyalthia longifolia</em> administration improved the histoarchitectural distortion of the testis in the cadmium sulphate treated group. Polyalthia longifolia administration restored the alteration on the sperm parameters of the damaged testes. The result suggested that <em>Polyalthia longifolia</em> restored testicular toxicity induced by cadmium sulphate and may be used as sub fertility drug.</p> Ogunbiyi Olubunmi E Oyewopo Adeoye Oyetunji Tokunbo Olorunfemi S Adeleke Opeyemi Samson Abayomi Taiwo Adekemi Johnson Olawumi Feyisike Bello Matthew K. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-03 2021-05-03 9 2 52 58 10.47277/JIRB/9(1)/52 Oocyte Metaphase Arrest and Release: Triggers and Pathways https://www.dormaj.org/index.php/JIRB/article/view/238 <p>Release of a mature egg is an important pre-requisite of mammalian reproduction.&nbsp; Starting from the time when oogenesis begins during fetal development, to the time of puberty and until fertilization, the oocyte encounters several stop-and-go periods. Altered pathways may affect fertilization outcome. Understanding of the stop-and-go periods is based on exploring the underlying mechanisms. This review aimed at addressing the triggers and signalling pathways leading to oocyte meiotic II resumption. A detailed literature search was done for studies on various databases such as Google, PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane reviews etc.with related keywords such as oocyte meiotic release, oocyte metaphase arrest, oocyte activation, sperm oocyte activating factors etc. Selected studies were reviewed by two observers. All obtained information was analysed and was shaped into manuscript appropriately. It was explained that till ovulation begins oocytes are held in meiotic arrest in diplotene stage of prophase I. Just before ovulation luteinizing hormone (LH) surge directs resumption of meiosis I. The arrested primary oocytes complete meiosis I and progresses through second meiotic division and gets arrested again at metaphase II (MII) until fertilization. Results concluded that the MII arrest persists till sperm enters the oocyte and releases its activating factors into the ooplasm. These activating factors are the triggers unlocking the subsequent pathways releasing oocyte from meiotic arrest.</p> KAJAL SIHAG MONA SHARMA ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-11 2021-05-11 9 2 59 64 10.47277/JIRB/9(2)/59 The Role of Retinal Pigment Epithelium in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Age Related Macular Degeneration https://www.dormaj.org/index.php/JIRB/article/view/259 <p>Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) has a fundamental role in preserving retinal health via supporting and protection of photoreceptors, the establishment of the outer blood-retinal barrier, and engaging in many biochemical reactions. Therefore, RPE malfunction and destruction in disorders such as age-related macular degeneration can eventually result in outer retinal degeneration and permanent loss of vision. Cell-based and gene-based therapies to rectify RPE function are novel approaches to treat disorders, which otherwise considered untreatable. These strategies are particularly effective in patients who still have an acceptable retinal function, and thus should be applied in the early stages of the disease. There are a variety of approaches for RPE replacement therapy and many promising target gene therapy. There is still a long way to establish the best method in this regard. This review focused on the role of RPE in the pathogenesis of retinal disorders and also the role of cell or gene therapy in the management of retinal disorders.</p> Fatemeh Sanie-Jahromi Zahra Emadi Zohreh Khajehahmadi Mohammad Hossein Nowroozzadeh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-11 2021-05-11 9 2 65 69 Does preovulatory follicle number affect probability for achievement of at least one top quality embryo from poor responder women undergoing assisted reproduction treatment? https://www.dormaj.org/index.php/JIRB/article/view/332 <p class="western" align="justify">Choosing the ideal treatment protocol based on the prediction of normal, poor, or excessive response might guide clinicians to achieve these treatment goals. Patient-oriented strategies regarding the number of oocytes intended to induce a top-quality embryo (TQE) are needed. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic cycle characteristics for achieving at least one top-quality embryo during ovulation induction among poor responder patients. The medical records of 426 patients with low oocyte yield following controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) treatment for in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF–ET) procedures between 2008 and 2013 were evaluated. One hundred and thirty-two patients exhibiting poor ovarian response based on the 2011 ESHRE diagnostic criteria were included after exclusion of couples with male factor infertility, endometriosis, chromosomal abnormalities, and any other condition reducing fertility. When the cycle characteristics of women aged ≥35 years were analyzed selectively, a significantly positive correlation has been found between the numbers of &gt;14 mm follicles and generation of top-quality embryos following IVF-ET unlike women &lt;35 years old. Despite the clinical and live birth rates among the two age groups were comparable, the number of &gt;14 mm follicles needed to achieve at least one TQE during COH among ≥35 years old group was determined as 3.5 with a sensitivity of 73% and specificity of 67% (p:0.004). Minimal stimulation protocols might be a reasonable choice for poor responder women younger than 35 years due to a favorable prognosis when compared to older counterparts.</p> Serkan Kahyaoglu Hacer Cavidan Gulerman Nafiye Yilmaz Inci Kahyaoglu Yaprak Ustun ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-06-20 2021-06-20 9 2 70 78 The Etiology of Infertility and Treatment Outcome in Couples Aged 40 Years or more in a Non-IVF Setting https://www.dormaj.org/index.php/JIRB/article/view/402 <p>Infertility is a global reproductive problem that has a huge impact on a couple’s life. Different etiological factors contribute to this problem, and the pregnancy outcomes vary depending on the infertility cause and age of the women.<a name="_Toc71630265"></a><a name="_Toc6835624"></a> This study aimed to investigate the etiology of infertility and pregnancy outcomes in women aged 40 years or more in a non-IVF setting from January 2015 up to December 2019.<a name="_Toc71630266"></a><a name="_Toc6835625"></a> This study was a descriptive retrospective cohort study that included 207 infertile patients who attended the infertility clinic in SQUH from 1 January 2015 up to 31 December 2019. Data were collected from the hospital’s information system (HIS) and analyzed by using the SPSS program (version 25).<a name="_Toc71630267"></a><a name="_Toc6835626"></a> There were a total of 207 couples. The study showed that secondary infertility (71.5%) was more prevalent compared to primary infertility (28.5%). About 9.66% of women had live babies after treatment, though the overall pregnancy rate was 12%. Most of the infertility cases were due to female factors (54.1%), followed by male factors (22.7%). The commonest semen characteristic was asthenozoospermia (52.7%). The best outcome was for couples with unexplained infertility where 20.0% of them got normal live babies.<a name="_Toc71630268"></a><a name="_Toc6835627"></a> The overall live baby rate was 9.66%. Female factors specifically anovulatory disorders remain the commonest cause of infertility. The best outcome was for women with unexplained infertility.</p> Fatema Hilal Al Abdali Vaidyanathan Gowri ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-06-20 2021-06-20 9 2 79 84 Prevention of Arsenic Induced Testicular Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage by Coenzyme Q10 and Vitamin E in Swiss Albino Mice https://www.dormaj.org/index.php/JIRB/article/view/392 <p>Arsenic toxicity has become one of the major public health problems in certain parts of the world. Thus, it is rational to find out a suitable compound to prevent arsenic-induced toxicity for clinical usage. Hence, the Coenzyme Q10 and Vitamin E were tested against arsenic-induced testicular oxidative stress and DNA damage. The mice were divided into five groups, animals of the four groups were exposed to 136 ppm arsenic via drinking water for 30 days. Subsequently, animals of three groups were treated with Vitamin E (50 mg/kg b.wt.), Coenzyme Q10 (10 mg/kg b.wt.), and their combination for 30 days, and animals of the 4th group were maintained without antioxidant treatment. The animals of the 5<sup>th</sup> group (without any treatment) served as control. Thereafter, blood was collected, for DNA damage study, and testis dissected out to assess oxidative stress. The body and testis weight gain were lower in the arsenic subjected group compared to the control group whereas antioxidants (Vitamin E, Coenzyme Q10, and combination) treatment checks to some extent this decline. Biochemical data indicated that lipid peroxidation level was higher while reduced glutathione, total thiol, superoxide dismutase, and total protein level was significantly lesser in the arsenic exposed group compared to the control group, and antioxidants treatment diminished arsenic-induced these alterations to some extent. Arsenic induces DNA damage in the blood cells of mice by displaying a significantly lower head DNA percentage and a higher level of tail DNA percentage, tail length, tail moment, while Vitamin E, Coenzyme Q10, and combination were able to lower these changes. The data further revealed that the combined treatment of Vitamin E, Coenzyme Q10 is more effective than the treatment of these antioxidants individually.</p> Anupama Sharma Chaoba Kshetriyanum Bharat Patel Rekha Kashyap Harsiddha G Sadhu Sunil Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-06-20 2021-06-20 9 2 85 91 Assessing the Effect of the Covid-19 Pandemic on Mental Health among the Indian Academic Community https://www.dormaj.org/index.php/JIRB/article/view/400 <p>The study aimed to assess the proportion of migrated academic communities feeling depressed during the COVID-19 pandemic. An online survey (among 18-45 years of age) was conducted to assess the feeling of being depressed for people involved in academics who had to shift from their current location. Convenience samples were recruited via social media and data was collected using a cross-sectional method. A total of 250 respondents (215 eligible respondents), were recruited and their mental health was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire -9 tool. Our finding shows that depressive symptoms (levels) were 45.6% and 25.1%, respectively, reported mild to moderate levels of depression. Perceptions that the pandemic disrupted life events, education, place of engagement (occupation), and monthly income were significantly associated with poor mental health outcomes. The proportion of respondents from the academic community, facing the trouble of migration, with depression was found to be 77.67% including mild depression. These findings encourage the use of low-intensity mental health treatments that are easily accessible during and after the pandemic. Depression is an inevitable part of every human being; it must be addressed at the earliest at the institutional level as well as community level. During the COVID-19 pandemic, it is critical to maintain individual mental health and establish therapeutic approaches that can enhance the mental health of vulnerable groups. Mental health conditions were prevalent during the pandemic, according to our study. Public health interventions are needed to improve the population's mental health and resilience in the community.</p> Parmeet Kumar Vinit Mukesh Kumar Gupta Dinabandhu Mahata Komal Suresh Gajbhiye himanshu chaurasia ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-06-26 2021-06-26 9 2 92 96