Development and Assessment of Integrated Portable Water Treatment System (IPWTS)
In the present study, Integrated Portable Water Treatment System (IPWTS) for household application is developed and assessed for its operation and effectiveness for turbidity and organic matter reduction under different operational conditions. The treatability studies with coagulation using Moringa oleifera (MO) and Aloe vera (AV), flocculation/ballasted flocculation with sand/Powdered Activated Carbon(PAC) and settling (referred as pre-treatment study) and filtration by sand/GAC/Clay candle filter (referred as post-treatment study) were extensively carried using IPWTS. The developed IPWTS is facilitated with provision for coagulation, flocculation/ballasted flocculation, sand filtration/GAC filtration/candle filtration and backwashing. The main objective of this study was to develop and assess the performance of IPWTS by analyzing the residual turbidity and COD of raw, settled and filtered water. The turbidity can be removed to an extent of 85% after settling coagulated-flocculated water with MO or MO-AV, 93% for coagulated-ballasted flocculated water with MO and sand and 95% for coagulated-ballasted flocculated water with MO and PAC. Sand ballasted flocculation and sand-GAC filter configuration was found appropriate to treat surface water for turbidity removal. Post-treatment of settled water for turbidity and COD removal (100%) can be effectively achieved by sand-GAC filter. The length of sand-GAC filter run can be enhanced by increasing the depth of GAC bed. The developed IPWTS is i) easy to operate; ii) more convenient to carry out coagulation/flocculation/ballasted flocculation manually; iii) less power intensive; iv) flexible for incorporating all the operations/processes required for water treatment and v) suitable for application particularly for remote/rural population.
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