Multi-Criteria Analysis to Choose the Suitable Technique of the Treatment of Rural Wastewater

  • Amal Kabbour Faculty of Sciences & Techniques, Hassan II University of Casablanca, Mohammedia, Morocco
  • Latifa Mouhir Laboratory of Process Engineering & Environment, Faculty of Sciences & Techniques, Hassan II University of Casablanca, Mohammedia, Morocco.
  • Mustapha El Hafidi National Office of Electricity and Potable Water (ONEE), Rabat, Morocco
  • Laila Saafadi Laboratory of Process Engineering & Environment, Faculty of Sciences & Techniques, Hassan II University of Casablanca, Mohammedia, Morocco
Keywords: Biological oxygen demand (BOD), Chemical oxygen demand (COD), Liquid sanitation, Multi-criteria, Solids matters (SM), Rural area, Vertical flow constructed wetland, Wastewater


In order to find a solution to the problem of liquid sanitation in small communities, especially in the rural area, which suffers from groundwater contamination, source of drinking water, due to the infiltration of raw sewage from uncontrolled latrines.  Therefore, the aim of this work was to develop treatment scenarios in the Bouregreg pilot site, which are likely to mitigate the degradation of environmental quality and could serve as a model for the rural environment. Taking this into account, the objectives of the used approach in this work were: i) to develop a treatment processes database by carrying out a benchmarking of the main domestic wastewaters technical.  ii) to define a multicriteria matrix of different treatments such as design, dimensioning, and the financial feasibility of each treatment through statistical analysis to select the appropriate variant for small communities. Indeed, vertical flow constructed wetland was selected as a suitable and sustainable solution for rural environment.  Moreover, a pilot experimental setup was constructed to evaluate the potential of vetiveria zizanioides that was chosen for treating wastewater generated in campus wastewater outlet of ONEE-RABAT. Various water quality parameters such as Biological oxygen demand (BOD), Chemical oxygen demand (COD), and Solids matters (SM) were performed on the treated water and the overall results demonstrated that the applied system was able to remove 80 to 99 % of BOD, 71 to 90 % of COD, 93 to 99 % of SM and the parameters values of treated water are within the permissible limits for domestic (current legislation of morocco).


Download data is not yet available.


Afnor. Qualité de l'eau, Environnement. Recueil des normes françaises, Paris, 1994.

Amir G., Hamidreza Za., Alexandros I. A novel pilot and full-scale constructed wetland study for glass industry wastewater treatment. J. Civ. Eng. 2020; 49:139–148.

Chen, F., Yao, Q.The development of rural domestic wastewater treatment in China. Adv. Mater. Res. 2015; 1073-1076, 829-832.

Chen. G.Q., Talebi. S. A review of salty waste stream management in the Australian dairy industry. J. Environ. Manage. (2018);

Choi, J., Geronimo, F.K.F., Maniquiz-Redillas, M.C., Kang, M.-J., Kim, L.-H. Evaluation of a hybrid constructed wetland system for treating urban stormwater runoff. Desalin. Water Treat. 2015; 53: 3104–3110.

Crites, R., & Tchobanoglous, G. Small and decentralized wastewater management systems. Boston, MA, USA: McGraw Hill Inc, 1998.

Kynkäänniemi, P., Ulén, B., Torstensson, G., Tonderski, K.S. Phosphorus Retention in a Newly Constructed Wetland Receiving Agricultural Tile Drainage Water. J. Environ. Qual. 2013; 42: 596–605.

Matamoros, V.; Salvadó, V. Evaluation of the seasonal performance of a water reclamation pond-constructed wetland system for removing emerging contaminants. Chemosphere. 2012; 86: 111–117.

María L. Merino-Solís, Edgardo Villegas, José de Anda, and Alberto López-López. The Effect of the Hydraulic Retention Time on the Performance of an Ecological Wastewater Treatment System: An Anaerobic Filter with a Constructed Wetland.Water. 2015; 7(3): 1149-1163.

Magdi Khalifa, Yasmeen Gaber Abou El-Reash, Mohamed I. Ahmed, Fady W. Rizk. Effect of media variation on the removal efficiency of pollutants from domestic wastewater in constructed wetland systems. Ecological Engineering. 2020; 143:105668-105676.

Mervat A. El-Sonbati, Omnya A. El-Battrawy, Ebtesam M. El-Awadly and Talaat A. Hegazy. Pretreatment of High Organic Load Dairy Industry Wastewater by Chemical Coagulation and Advanced Oxidation Processes. CATRINA. 2020; 21 (1): 53-60.

Mulamoottil G., Edward A. McBean, Rovers F. Constructed Wetlands for the Treatment of Landfill Leachates. 1st Edition. CRC Press ; 2019. 304p.

Nasr. M, Elreedy. A, Abdel-Kader. A, Elbarki. W, Moustafa. M. Environmental consideration of dairy wastewatertreatment using hybrid sequencing batch reactor. Sustain. Environ. Res. 2014; 24 : 449–456.

Nivala, J., Boog, J., Headley, T., Aubron, T., Wallace, S., Brix, H., Mothes, S., van Afferden, M., Müller, R.A. Side-by-side comparison of 15 pilot-scale conventional and intensified subsurface flow wetlands for treatment of domestic wastewater. Sci. Total Environ. 2019; 658, 1500-1513. scitotenv.2018.12.165.

Paul. T, Shahabaldin. R, Hossein. A, David W.M. L. Effectiveness of Vetiver Grass versus other Plants for Phytoremediation of Contaminated Water. J. Environ. Treat. Tech. 2019; 7 (3): 485-500.

Samia. A. A., Alaa U. A., Mohamed T. S. Cost analysis of activated sludge and membrane bioreactor WWTPs using Capdet Works simulation program: Case study of Tikrit WWTP (middleIraq). Alexandria Engineering Journal. 2020;

Sheoran, A., Sheoran, V., Heavy metal removal mechanism of acid mine drainage in wetlands: a critical review. Miner. Eng., 19 (2006) 105–116.

Tikariha. A., Sahu. O. Study of characteristics and treatments of dairy industry waste water. J. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2014); Secrétariat d’état auprès du ministre de l’énergie, des mines et du développement durable, chargé du développement durable du Maroc. Portant fixation des valeurs limites spécifiques de rejet domestique (2006).

Yi Cheng Li, Dong Qing Zhang, Mo Wang. Performance Evaluation of a Full‐Scale Constructed Wetland for Treating Stormwater Runoff. J. Clean soil air water. 2017; 45(11):1600740.

Yuhui M., Yukun Z. c., Xiangyong Z. b., Shengbing He. A., Min Z. Rural domestic wastewater treatment in constructed ditch wetlands: Effects of influent flow ratio distribution. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2019; 225: 350-358.

How to Cite
Kabbour, A., Mouhir, L., El Hafidi, M., & Saafadi, L. (2022). Multi-Criteria Analysis to Choose the Suitable Technique of the Treatment of Rural Wastewater. Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques, 10(1), 110-115.
Regular publication process