Application of Electrocoagulation for the Removal of Color from Institutional Wastewater: Analysis with Response Surface Methodology
The removal percentage of color from institutional wastewater was studied using an electrocoagulation process with different electrode combination at the anode and cathode. This was done by considering operational parameters such as pH at (3, 6 and 9), current at (0.03A, 0.06A and 0.09A) and reaction time at (20, 40 and 60 minutes). When electrode combined in the form of Al-Al (anode-Cathode/Cathode-Anode) and Fe-Fe (anode-Cathode/Cathode-Anode) the percentage removal of color was up to 95.50% and 97.24% respectively. On the other hand around 98.03% and 91.95% of color was removed when Al-Fe (Anode-Cathode) and Fe-Al (Anode-Cathode) combined at pH 9 and 60 minutes of reaction time respectively. Central composite design from response surface methodology was used up to analysis the statistical and mathematical data based on experimental results such as the model was significant for all electrode combinations. Similarly a quadratic model was used for further study of operational effects on the removal (%) of color from institutional wastewater. The value of coefficient of the determination (R2) also indicated the model was a good fit as well as optimization was done by Response Surface Methodology.
Marques RC, Miranda J. Sustainable tariffs for water and wastewater services. Util Policy. 2020;64.
Sirirerkratana K, Kemacheevakul P, Chuangchote S. Color removal from wastewater by photocatalytic process using titanium dioxide-coated glass, ceramic tile, and stainless steel sheets. J Clean Prod. 2019;215:123–30.
Amarine M, Lekhlif B, Sinan M, El Rharras A, Echaabi J. Treatment of nitrate-rich groundwater using electrocoagulation with aluminum anodes. Groundw Sustain Dev. 2020;11(September 2019):100371.
Khan NA, Khan SU, Ahmed S, Farooqi IH, Dhingra A, Hussain A, et al. Applications of nanotechnology in water and wastewater treatment: A review. Asian J Water, Environ Pollut. 2019;16(4):81–6.
Hakizimana JN, Gourich B, Chafi M, Stiriba Y, Vial C, Drogui P, et al. Electrocoagulation process in water treatment: A review of electrocoagulation modeling approaches. Desalination. 2017;404:1–21.
Manilal AM, Harinarayanan Nampoothiri MG, Soloman PA. Removal of oil and grease from automobile garage wastewater using electrocoagulation. IOP Conf Ser Mater Sci Eng. 2017;206(1):0–10.
Yehya T, Balla W, Chafi M, Audonnet F, Vial C, Essadki A, et al. Assessment of denitrification using electrocoagulation process. Can J Chem Eng. 2015;93(2):241–8.
Gurung A, Dahl O, Jansson K. The fundamental phenomena of nanobubbles and their behavior in wastewater treatment technologies. Geosystem Eng. 2016;19(3):133–42.
Nair DS, Sreedharan S. Reduction of Turbidity by Electrocoagulation. 2018;315–21.
Al-Qodah Z, Al-Shannag M. Heavy metal ions removal from wastewater using electrocoagulation processes: A comprehensive review. Sep Sci Technol. 2017;52(17):2649–76.
El-sayed MEA. Nanoadsorbents for water and wastewater remediation. Sci Total Environ. 2020;739:139903.
Nagarajappa D.P IJA. Domestic Wastewater Treatment by Electrocoagulation Using Copper and Aluminum Electrodes. Int J Innov Res Sci Eng Technol. 2015;04(06):3844–50.
Koyuncu S, Arıman S. Domestic wastewater treatment by real-scale electrocoagulation process. Water Sci Technol. 2020;1–12.
Tripathi VK, Warwade P. Influence of Semi-arid Climate on Characterization of Domestic Wastewater. 2018;281–92.
Veli S, Arslan A, Bingöl D. Application of Response Surface Methodology to Electrocoagulation Treatment of Hospital Wastewater. Clean - Soil, Air, Water. 2016;44(11):1516–22.
Ince M, Ince OK. Application of response surface methodological approach to optimize removal of Cr ions from industrial wastewater. At Spectrosc. 2019;40(3):91–7.
Sharma S, Can OT, Hammed M, Nawarathna D, Simsek H. Organic pollutant removal from edible oil process wastewater using electrocoagulation. IOP Conf Ser Earth Environ Sci. 2018;142(1).
Azadi Aghdam M, Kariminia HR, Safari S. Removal of lignin, COD, and color from pulp and paper wastewater using electrocoagulation. Desalin Water Treat. 2016;57(21):9698–704.
Duan X, Wu P, Pi K, Zhang H, Liu D, Gerson AR. Application of modified electrocoagulation for efficient color removal from synthetic methylene blue wastewater. Int J Electrochem Sci. 2018;13(6):5575–88.
Fan T, Deng W, Feng X, Pan F, Li Y. An integrated electrocoagulation – Electrocatalysis water treatment process using stainless steel cathodes coated with ultrathin TiO2 nanofilms. Chemosphere. 2020;254:126776.
Hamada M, Ghalwa NA, B. Farhat N, Mahllawi K Al, Jamee N. Optimization of Electrocoagulation on Removal of Wastewater Pollutants. Int J Waste Resour. 2018;08(04):4–9.
Divyapriya G, Nambi IM, Senthilnathan J. Nanocatalysts in fenton based advanced oxidation process for water and wastewater treatment. J Bionanoscience. 2016;10(5):356–68.
Ozyonar F, Muratcobanoglu H, Gokkus O. Taguchi approach for color removal using electrocoagulation with different electrode connection types. Fresenius Environ Bull. 2017;26(12):7600–7.
Yusoff MS, Azwan AM, Zamri MFMA, Aziz HA. Removal of colour, turbidity, oil and grease for slaughterhouse wastewater using electrocoagulation method. AIP Conf Proc. 2017;1892.
Siddiqa A. Treatment of Service Station Wastewater Using. 2017;5:348–53.
Jung KW, Ahn KH. Dual purpose recovered coagulant from drinking water treatment residuals for adjustment of initial pH and coagulation aid in electrocoagulation process. Environ Technol (United Kingdom). 2016;37(13):1605–17.
Dehghani MH, Karimi B, Rajaei MS. The effect of aeration on advanced coagulation, flotation and advanced oxidation processes for color removal from wastewater. J Mol Liq. 2016;223:75–80.
Jaeel AJ, Ali NS. Color removal from textile wastewater using capparis spinosa as natural coagulant. Int Conf Adv Sustain Eng Appl ICASEA 2018 - Proc. 2018;165–8.
Collivignarelli MC, Abbà A, Carnevale Miino M, Damiani S. Treatments for color removal from wastewater: State of the art. J Environ Manage. 2019;236(September 2018):727–45.
Jaeel AJ, Abdulkathum S. Sustainable pollutants removal from wastewater using sand filter: A review. Int Conf Adv Sustain Eng Appl ICASEA 2018 - Proc. 2018;179–83.
Salih Muharam SM, Rahmah CI, Yuningsih LM. Simultaneous Combination of Electrocoagulation and Chemical Coagulation Methods for Medical Wastewater Treatment. Makara J Sci. 2017;21(3):113–8.
Safwat SM. Treatment of real printing wastewater using electrocoagulation process with titanium and zinc electrodes. J Water Process Eng. 2020;34(September 2019):101137.
Papadopoulos KP, Economou CN, Tekerlekopoulou AG, Vayenas D V. Two-step treatment of brewery wastewater using electrocoagulation and cyanobacteria-based cultivation. J Environ Manage. 2020;265(April):110543.
Benekos AK, Zampeta C, Argyriou R, Economou CN, Triantaphyllidou IE, Tatoulis TI, et al. Treatment of table olive processing wastewaters using electrocoagulation in laboratory and pilot-scale reactors. Process Saf Environ Prot. 2019;131:38–47.
Bouguerra W, Barhoumi A, Ibrahim N, Brahmi K, Aloui L, Hamrouni B. Optimization of the electrocoagulation process for the removal of lead from water using aluminium as electrode material. Desalin Water Treat. 2015;56(10):2672–81.
Mores R, Treichel H, Zakrzevski CA, Kunz A, Steffens J, Dallago RM. Remove of phosphorous and turbidity of swine wastewater using electrocoagulation under continuous flow. Sep Purif Technol. 2016;171:112–7.
Damaraju M, Bhattacharyya D, Kurilla KK. Removal of Recalcitrant Carbon from an Industrial Wastewater Using Electrocoagulation. Int J Civ Eng. 2017;15(4):697–703.
Kumar D, Sharma C. Reduction of chlorophenols and sludge management from paper industry wastewater using electrocoagulation process. Sep Sci Technol. 2019;0(0):1–11.
Perren W, Wojtasik A, Cai Q. Removal of Microbeads from Wastewater Using Electrocoagulation. ACS Omega. 2018;3(3):3357–64.
Mohamud AA, Çalışkan Y, Bektaş N, Yatmaz HC. Investigation of shipyard wastewater treatment using electrocoagulation process with Al electrodes. Sep Sci Technol. 2018;53(15):2468–75.
Jo EY, Park SM, Yeo IS, Cha JD, Lee JY, Kim YH, et al. A study on the removal of sulfate and nitrate from the wet scrubber wastewater using electrocoagulation. Desalin Water Treat. 2016;57(17):7833–40.
Khedher M, Mossad M, El-Etriby HK. Enhancement of Electrocoagulation Process for Dye Removal Using Powdered Residuals from Water Purification Plants (PRWPP). Water Air Soil Pollut. 2017;228(8).
Dehghani M, Seresht S, Hashemi H. Treatment of hospital wastewater by electrocoagulation using aluminum and iron electrodes. Int J Environ Health Eng. 2014;3(1):15.
GUO SB. Ournal of. Asian J Chem. 2014;26(12):70–3.
Butler E, Hung Y-T, Yeh RY-L, Suleiman Al Ahmad M. Electrocoagulation in Wastewater Treatment. Water. 2011;3(2):495–525.
Yahiaoui I. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Materials and Sustainable Development. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Materials and Sustainable Development. Springer International Publishing; 2018. 527–539 p.
Asaithambi P. Studies on various operating parameters for the removal of COD from pulp and paper industry using electrocoagulation process. Desalin Water Treat. 2016;57(25):11746–55.