The Occurrence and Distribution of Organic Compounds with Atmospheric PMs in Nine Cities of Gujarat, India
Since the last decade, organic contaminants linked to the atmospheric particulate matter have been a major source of worry across the country. The ambient air samples were taken from nine cities using a cascade impactor at four separate stages. SEM and an energy dispersive X-ray system (EDAX) were used in Gujarat, India, to examine the morphology and elemental composition of fine and ultrafine particle sizes using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray system (EDAX). Si, C, O, Cl, F, Na, Zn, Al, K, Ca, Mg, and Ti were found to be quite abundant in the EDAX spectra, with traces of Sc, Ni, and Cu. Transition metal elements such as Ti, Zn, Ni, Cu, S, and Fe were discovered, indicating the influence of industry in the abundance of fine and ultrafine particles. In addition, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was used to examine the organic chemical contaminants that had stuck to particle matter. At nine different locations, a total of 308 organic chemicals were discovered, including 242 aliphatic and 66 aromatic chemical compounds. Vapi city was dominated by ultrafine particles. Commercial and urban places such as Ahmedabad, Anand, and Surat had more polycyclic aromatic chemicals than industrial sites.
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